2. Unlocking Brain Dynamics: Leveraging Network-Level States for Tailored Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Laura Marzetti Presenter
University "G. d'Annunzio"
Chieti/Pescara, Abbruzzo 
Wednesday, Jun 26: 9:00 AM - 10:15 AM
Room: Grand Ballroom 103 
In recent decades, systems neuroscience has provided evidence for the formation of brain networks transiently linking distributed brain regions, both during tasks and at rest. Concurrently, studies using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) have supported the notion that considering the brain's state just before stimulation—measured, for instance, through simultaneous ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG)—can significantly enhance the reliability of stimulation effects. These studies have mostly focused on information gathered from specific brain regions or EEG channels. In this paper, we propose potential avenues for defining and utilizing broad-scale, or network-level, brain states to guide TMS procedures. Initially, we outline a conceptual definition of these brain states, then illustrate examples from actual TMS–EEG data, demonstrating the feasibility of identifying such states. Finally, we contemplate how this approach could be used in real-time to deliver stimulation tailored to the brain's current state.